Antibacterial Activities Of Extracts From Stem Bark And Sawdust Of Erythrophleum Suaveolens (Guill. & Perri.) Brenan, Pterocarpus Erinaceous (Poir) And Vitellaria Paradoxa Gaertn. F.


  • D O Ekhuemelo
  • C Ekhuemelo


Antibiotics bacteria, plant extracts, efficacy, infection, disease


This study evaluated antibacterial effect of E. suaveolens P. erinaceous and V. paradoxa extracts against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Stem bark of plant species were collected from Joseph Sarwua Tarka University, Makurdi; sawdust samples were obtained from Timber Shed in Makurdi town. Samples were dried and sequentially macerated in solvents for 24 hours and at 37oC to obtain extracts. Test bacterial strains were isolated; carefully collected with sterile cotton swabs, unfurled on Mueller Houston agar medium in Petri dishes and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. The isolates were subjected to test according to standard method. Dishes were observed for bacteria growth and zones of inhibition (ZoI) measured and recorded. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of extracts were determined using broth dilution method. Results showed that P. erinaceous sawdust extracts inhibited E. coli, MRSA and S. typhi at 18 – 27 mm ZoI. Sawdust extracts from E. suaveolens and V. paradoxa controlled MRSA at ZoI 18 – 23 mm and VRE at 18 – 24 mm. Stem bark extracts from V. paradoxa inhibited E. coli at 19 – 21 mm and VRE at 20 – 24 mm E. suaveolens and P. erinaceous stem bark extracts inhibited E. coli at 18 – 23 mm. Ciprofloxacin, Cefuroxine and Sparfloxacin controlled test bacteria at 34 - 40 mm. Plant extracts in this study were very effective against test bacteria at MIC 10 – 20 mg/mL and MBC 10 – 40 mg/mL. Conclusively, plant extracts from this study could use as natural preservatives to control diseases caused test bacteria.

Author Biographies

D O Ekhuemelo

Department of Forest Production and Products,
Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University,
Makurdi, Nigeria

C Ekhuemelo

Department of Crop and Environmental Protection,
Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University,
Makurdi, Nigeria